Do you have deficits in Executive Functions?
- Finding it hard to get started on a tasks?
Have trouble figuring out how much time a task requires
Do things either quickly and messily or slowly and incompletely
Have trouble paying attention and are easily distracted
Loose a train of thought when interrupted
Need to be told directions many times
Have trouble making decisions
Have a tough time change focus from one activity to another
Don't always have the words to explain something in detail
Need help processing what something feels/sounds/looks like
Are not able to think about or do more than one thing at a time
A person with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might be hyperactive, inattentive, and/or impulsive. Clinicians have always understood hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Executive function disorder (EFD) involve a pattern of chronic difficulties in executing daily tasks. These difficulties cause the most difficulties in daily basis.
Executive functions allow us to:
1. Analyze a task
2. Plan how to address the task
3. Organize the steps needed to carry out the task
4. Develop timelines for completing the task
5. Adjust or shift the steps, if needed, to complete the task
6. Complete the task in a timely way
Executive skills include:
Impulse control: This is a person’s ability to stop and think before acting. They may blurt things out. They may do unsafe things without thinking it through. They also may quit a chore halfway through to go hang out with friends and have trouble following rules consistently.
Emotional control: This is the ability to focus on the end result or goal. This causes trouble accepting negative feedback. This causes struggle to finish a task when something is upsetting.
Flexibility: This is the ability to change behaviour based on circumstances.
Working memory: This is the ability to hold information in the mind and use it to complete a task. Reduction causes trouble with multi-step tasks, remembering directions, taking notes or understanding something thats just been explained to them.
Planning and prioritising: This is the ability to come up with the steps needed to reach a goal and to decide their order of importance.
Task initiation: This is the ability to get started on something. Reduced ability causes issues with planning and prioritizing.
Organisation: This is the ability to keep track of information and things.
What causes executive functioning issues?
People differ in how they use executive skills. Studies show that the differences among people are almost completely influenced by genes.
For the most part, executive functioning is controlled by a region of the brain called the prefrontal cortex. Research has shown that people who have disorders, diseases or injuries to the prefrontal cortex often develop executive functioning issues (ADHD, learning disability, dyslexia, dyspraxia, head injury)
How are executive functioning issues diagnosed?
Questionnaires or screening forms. One tool commonly used is the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF).
Intelligence testing. Tests like the Wechsler Intelligence Scale.
•Observation and interview. Most professionals will also want to see for themselves the way you interacts with people and the world around her.
Contact Dr Rajpal for more information and discussion of what help is possible if you struggle with EFD